Κυριακή, 11 Μαρτίου 2012

ΣΧΕΔΙΑ ΠΥΡΓΩΝ ΚΑΙ "ΠΑΡΑΤΗΡΗΤΗΡΙΩΝ" ΣΤΗ ΣΟΒΙΕΤΙΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ ΠΟΥ ΔΕΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΑΣΤHΚΑΝ

Tatlin’s Tower or The Monument to the Third International is a grand monumental building envisioned by the Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin, but never built. It was planned to be erected in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, as the headquarters and monument of the Comintern (the third international).


 

Plans


 


Model of the tower, 1919
Tatlin's Constructivist tower was to be built from industrial materials: iron, glass and steel. In materials, shape, and function, it was envisaged as a towering symbol of modernity. It would have dwarfed the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The tower's main form was a twin helix which spiraled up to 400 m in height, around which visitors would be transported with the aid of various mechanical devices. The main framework would contain four large suspended geometric structures. These structures would rotate at different rates of speed. At the base of the structure was a cube which was designed as a venue for lectures, conferences and legislative meetings, and this would complete a rotation in the span of one year. Above the cube would be a smaller pyramid housing executive activities and completing a rotation once a month. Further up would be a cylinder, which was to house an information centre, issuing news bulletins and manifestos via telegraph, radio and loudspeaker, and would complete a rotation once a day. At the top, there would be a hemisphere for radio equipment. There were also plans to install a gigantic open-air screen on the cylinder, and a further projector which would be able to cast messages across the clouds on any overcast day.[1]

[edit] Evaluations

The Monument is generally considered to be the defining expression of architectural constructivism, rather than a buildable project. Even if the gigantic amount of required steel had been available in revolutionary Russia, in the context of housing shortages and political turmoil, there are serious doubts about its structural practicality.[1]

[edit] Models

There is a model of Tatlin’s Tower at the Museum of Modern Art in Stockholm, Sweden and at Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. A 1:42 model was built at The Royal Academy of Arts, London in November 2011.

[edit] Description


Palace of the Soviets




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Palace of the Soviets
Дворец Советов
Postcard 1941 sovietpalace.jpg

 General information





Status Never built
Type Government, monument, office
Location Moscow, Russia
Coordinates 55°44′41″N 37°36′21″ECoordinates: 55°44′41″N 37°36′21″E


Height
Antenna spire  495 m (1,624 ft)
Roof 415 m (1,362 ft)

Technical details

Floor count
 100
 Design and construction





Architect
Boris Iofan, Vladimir Shchuko
The Palace of the Soviets (Russian: Дворец Советов, Dvorets Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russia, near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The architectural contest for the Palace of the Soviets (1931–1933) was won by Boris Iofan's neoclassical concept, subsequently revised by Iofan, Vladimir Shchuko and Vladimir Gelfreikh into a supertall skyscraper. If built, it would have become the world's tallest structure of its time. Construction started in 1937, and was terminated by the German invasion in 1941. In 1941–1942, its steel frame was disassembled for use in fortifications and bridges. Construction was never resumed. In 1958, the foundations of the Palace were converted into what would become the world's largest open-air swimming pool. The Cathedral was rebuilt in 1995–2000.[1]
A nearby subway station, built in 1935 as Palace of the Soviets station, was renamed Kropotkinskaya in 1957.